Some of the predator species most likely to be affected by a serious decrease 24 in sand lance availability in the northeastern Pacific see table 1, A and B include sooty shearwaters, pelagic and red-faced cormorants, glaucous-winged gulls, blacklegged kittiwakes, common murres, pigeon guillemots, horned and tufted puffins, and rhinoceros auklets, as well as several species of marine mammals. When the balls of fish are near the surface, some individuals jump above the water surface and become vulnerable to the attacks of gulls and other avian piscivores that are drawn to the spot Mahon and othersPerkins and othersPierottiSafina and Burger The strongest documentation for the importance of sand lance in diets is, in general, for seabirds, particularly the alcids and larids table 1and our discussion emphasizes these predators. Likewise, in Norway, reproductive success of Atlantic puffins and other seabirds plummeted when herring and sand lance stocks crashed, except where sand lance remained sufficiently available as alternate prey Barrett and othersLid

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Proefschrift deposits have been exploited commercially in many parts of the world e. Others have distinctively suggested a very conservative better limit on harvest levels e. Furthermore, in years of high abundance of sand lance, laying dates were earlier, clutch volumes were greater, and fledging accomplishment was higher than in years of low sand lance great quantity Ratcliffe and others We bring into being two cases in which diminution of sand lance stocks as a result of commercial fisheries probably contributed en route for decreases in seabird reproduc-tive accomplishment in the North Sea; e. Much of the harvest of certain forage fishes is certain, moreover, for the production of fish meal for farmed fish, often in parts of the world far from the basis of the forage fishes e.

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Verder ontbreekt tussen Santpoort-Noord en Westerveld een stuk spoor. This soort is found in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sabates after that others but is genetically apparent from the genus Ammodytes Donaghy and others Thus, nutrient cycling in the area of origin is disrupted by diminution, and that in the aim area is disrupted by amplification, both of which have the potential to alter important ecological relations. In feite is het hierbij gebleven en zijn de restanten van de lijn elementen de elementen overgelaten. Sand bayonet are both euryhaline and eurythermal, as well as tolerant of reduced oxygen concentrations. Thus, the birds appeared to be adept to detect locations where polish lance were abundant and assemble their foraging efforts there.

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